Land-atmosphere exchange and atmospheric boundary layer dynamics over heterogeneous surfaces are of significance to a wide array of geophysical and engineering applications.
Yet, despite over five decades of intense efforts, numerous open research questions remain. This underlines the complexity of the physical processes that are excited by heterogeneity, the multitude of patterns and manifestations that it can display, and the importance of the implications on research in atmospheric sciences and beyond. In this talk, we propose a abroad classification of surface heterogeneity into 4 categories, and a dimensional analysis framework to reduce the parameter space of the problem. We then present results from Large Eddy Simulations for flow and land-atmosphere coupling over various classes of heterogeneous surfaces. Finally, we overview the implications on how subgrid scale parametrization schemes of reasonable complexity can be formulated for Earth Systems Models.